Building Background – Benefits of Using Sentence Frames to Build Background Knowledge

Even as native English speakers we sometimes struggle with just the right word to explain, describe, clarify, or elucidate what we want to convey. We always understand more than we can speak. One of best ways to engage English language learners (ELL) in actively acquiring new material is to connect their background knowledge to the new topic. So, let's give them some brackets to help them use language.

We will be most successful if we remember to always start with the concept or theme.

# 1 When beginning a new topic, let pairs pretest one another. Write this sentence frame on a board, overhead, or PowerPoint, or make your own blackline master with the sentence frame repeated four to six times on a page so you can cut them into strips to hand out to the pairs.

A: "Do you know anything about (topic)?

B: "I'm not sure, but I do know _____."

Egypt "I think it could be _____ because I learned _____."

After students copy the sentence frame, or use the handy strips, erase the word 'topic' in the first sentence. Write in the topic for today. It may be a theme, or a characteristic, or an emotion.

  • Read the sentence frame aloud to the students.
  • Read it again, and this time the students should repeat after you.
  • Give them sixty seconds (yes, really time it, using the entire sixty seconds) to look at the word and think about everything they know about it. No talking. No writing. Just thinking.
  • Next, let students use another 60 seconds (yep, time it again) to write words and phrases to capture their thoughts about the topic.
  • Finally it is time to talk.

This is time well-spent. Your lesson will be stronger and more relevant. Your students will be engaged. You can continue to spiral the content, connecting it to what they already know or previously learned. The ELs will build confidence as they are encouraged to think, write, and talk about what they already know.

# 2 Plan more opportunities for pupil interaction. Here's another sentence starter than can be used with individuals, then shared in small groups.

This new theme of _____ reminds me of a time in my life when _____.

# 3 Make sentences frames with the word 'because' to have students explain connections between previous learning and the new topic.

"I think the next topic will be _____ because our last lesson was _____."

This kind of sentence frame encourages prediction according to prior learning. This is a good time to show the students how much they have learned and how it all links together.

# 4 After reading a story, a sentence frame can be used to let students speak with a partner. You can expand this speaking activity to include a second partner, like elbow- partners and across-the-aisle partners. Provide a sentence frame:

For example, "I think _____ is a hero, because _____."

# 5 Ask students to make comparisons to concrete objects in linguistic ways. Hand out objects to students and give them some time to think and write again, before speaking.

Try this sentence frame with a variety of objects:

I am like this _____ (Snickers bar), because I am _____ (nutty).

I am like this _____ (Matchbox Ferrari), because I am _____ (small and fast).

I am like this _____ (red pencil) because I am _____ (my face is red because I have to talk aloud).

The objects you use can be almost anything!

Now that your imagination is raising up, make up some brackets to use tomorrow.

  • Think about how you would want the smartest student in the school to speak.
  • Then use your target vocabulary and academic language to make a sentence frame.
  • Encourage your ELLs to speak in complete sentences in all conversations in the classroom. This will increase their academic vocabulary, which maximizes learning, and builds confidence.
  • Kids like to feel smart!

Digital Scrapbooking – The Great Possibilities to Explore

Have you been asking yourself what great things you can make using digital scrapbooking? Well, it's a normal question, since we keep hearing lots of great things about the versatility of this method these days. And to tell you the truth, you can do everything using the technique. In other words, your digital scrapbook can be as variant, creative and unique as the paper version. And considering the kind of flexibility and ease you get with the digital version, it's much better to do your work digitally on your personal computer.

To give you a better idea of ​​how to get things done well using a digital scrapbooking software application, here are some handy tips. We hope you'll be able to make the most out of these suggestions.

You can craft stickers, creative text overlays, colorful ribbons, eye-catching shadows or even curled edges. Use these techniques to create a unique design.

You can easily cut out various types of shapes without taking measurements time and time again, when you wish to have multiple items in similar shape. Consider making use of dissimilar brushes when you are trying to make a wide array of effects on a digital scrapbooking project.

Also consider adding some pop out effects or outline texts along with vellum shadows. Using reflections makes great sense as well. You'll be able to add some attractive wrinkles onto the paper!

And here comes the "tip off the iceberg"! It's hard to mention all the things that can be done using digital scrapbooking software applications. In other words, sky is the limit when you want to beautify your layouts and make them unique. You can be your friends and family members have never seen something like this before. Just imagine the brilliance of these software solutions. You get to implement all those versatility decorations without even using a paper till your creation is done!

Travel Oahu – Experience Hawaii Like A Local

Every year millions of visitors from Japan, mainland USA and beyond land at
Honolulu International Airport ready to begin their vacation in paradise. Soon after
Landing, most visitors hop in a cab or bus sent from the hotel and begin the journey
Past downtown Honolulu and on to their reservation at a Waikiki hotel.

The allure of Waikiki is immediate. The packed streets, sounds of the beach, and
Exotic histories call to the traveler who soon hits the streets. Venturing out in
Waikiki can be quite exciting. The streets are filled with foreign languages, throngs
Of tourists are dressed in their beach best, and the beginning of surf history can be
Seen at the end of the street. Waikiki can be so exciting that many visitors never
Escape its imaginary borders. Approximately 6 million of these visitors miss the very
Sites that locals find so endearing, remaining within the two square miles of Waikiki.

For those travelers interested in seeing Oahu through its residents' eyes, please
Read on.

Magic Island Beach Park – This popular park is located just west of
Waikiki, across the street from the Ala Moana Shopping Center. The park includes
Two beaches, a three mile jogging path, tennis courts, and more. A walk around the
Park will expose the center of Hawaiian culture – the family. Large extended families
Gather around hibachis, spending the day together with a good food and plenty of
Sun. The beaches are significantly less crowded, so for a great day, grab a barbecue
And head down to the beach at Magic Island!

The Contemporary Museum Honolulu – This small museum is located
High on a ridge at Makiki Heights Drive. The drive up the ridge offers amazing vistas
That would otherwise be missed by most Oahu visitors. The relatively small museum
Offers changing exhibitions in its five galleries. After traversing the galleries, visitors
Can wander out onto the sculpture gardens. This is where the true glory of the
Museum is revealed. The 3.5 acres of sculpture and meditative gardens are open to
The public and offer some of the most amazing views of Honolulu.

Leong's Cafe – Many visitors look to a lu'au for more than entertainment;
They are after some great Hawaiian food. However, if you're interested in real local
Style Hawaiian food, you can not beat Leong's Cafe located at 2343 North King Street.
As a favorite for plate lunches, kalua pig, lu'au stew, lomi lomi, and more, locales
Have been visiting this cafe for over 50 years!

Champion Malasadas – The local treat called Malasadas are so popular
That Fat Tuesday has been re-christened Malasada Day throughout the Hawaiian
Islands. One of the best and most famous bakeries is Champion Malasadas located
At 1926 South Beretania Street. These light portuguese hole-less donuts come with
And without filling and are absolutely worth the effort in getting them!

Honolulu Chinatown – A walk through the streets of Chinatown in like a
Walk into another time and place. Whatever you are looking for dim sum, fresh
Produce, handmade leis, or the new hip lounge, you are sure to find it in Chinatown.
The streets and shops are exotic, offering items not found in a typical american
Grocery. Guided walking tours are available for this historic district, but often the
Best way is to simply meander through the streets, stopping whenever your interest
Has been piqued.

If you are interested in seeing Oahu through a local's eyes, be sure to spend some
Time outside of Waikiki. Stop by some or all of the spots listed above and see some
Of what truly makes Hawaii special.

A Worm Farm on a Budget

Have you wanted to set up a home worm farm, but been put off by the high cost of purchasing one of the neat “designer label” multi-tiered ” vermicomposting” kits, promoted by garden centers and mail order companies? Well, let’s cut through the crap! – ITS ACTUALLY NO SECRET !!! -You can easily make your own DIY three bin kit for a just a few dollars and your worms will be as happy as little pigs in the yellow stuff, with no big bad wolf in sight. Moreover, you do not need to be an expert handyman to achieve this!

  • Hardware stores, supermarkets and camping outlets sell tough, general purpose black (opaque) plastic storage containers for a very reasonable price. These are usually tapered so that they can be nested to facilitate stacking on the retailer’s shelves and come with a ” snap-fit” ce lid. For your worm farm, you will need three of these tapered containers (but only one lid). For a simple home worm farm I would advise going for 12 gallon (45 liter) containers. Typically, they will be about 15 inches deep (400mm). You can go smaller, if you want.
  • In the first storage container, drill a 3/8 inch (15mm hole), centrally placed, in the side of the bin, just above the base. Insert a inch inch (12mm) cheap plastic barrel or irrigation tap (with washers) into your hole and tighten fast with lock nuts – make sure you get a good seal – test by filling the container with tap water. This container is to be the lowest one in your stack and will retain the highly nutritional ” worm tea ” leachate, that will start dripping down from the composting bins above. Worm tea is a valuable liquid organic fertilizer, that can be diluted and used directly on your organic vegetables.

The two upper bins will actually hold the worms. They are to be identified and are prepared as follows: -

  • Drill a pattern of inch inch (6mm) holes across the entire base of each container for drainage and to allow drainage and the upward migration of the compost worms, these holes should be regularly spaced at approximately two inch (50mm) centers in either direction.
  • For aeration, drill two rows of inch inch (6mm) holes at two inch (50mm) centers, in a continuous band around each of the bins. This band of holes would be about four inches (100mm) below the top rim of the bin.
  • It is not essential to drill holes in the lid, which is closed tightly over the upper bin. As you should get enough air through the sides.
  • You first set up the lower (sump) bin on bricks or blocks, allowing enough space to tap off the fluid from beneath it. Choose a shady location for the worm farm (in a shed or garage, if you are subject to frosts).
  • The second and third bins are “nested” within each other and dropped into the sump bin. To maintain a working space for the worms, and for accumulation of compost, you need a few spacers or packers of about six to eight inches height, between the two upper bins and some smaller packers of about four inches in the lower (sump) bin . You can use wood blocks or sealed food jars for packers. The packers also prevent the tapered worm bins from jamming together.
  • To prevent “nasty bugs” from squeezing in between the bins, you should close ( caulk ) the small gap between them with strips of shade cloth, or mosquito netting.

Now you are ready to go into production. Spacevents us from giving fully detailed notes here for the fine points of operating the system, such as selecting and feeding your worms, eradicating pests and maintaining the worm farm etc – you can visit our website for this information. However, just make sure that you cover the following points: -

  • Set up your worms in the top bin with a good (damp) fibrous bedding (or even shredded newspaper) and after a few days you will be ready to start feeding in your kitchen scraps. Cover the food with more bedding material to discourage pests and keep the lid closed.
  • Make sure the worm farm is never allowed to dry out, by sprinkling water over the bedding periodically, if there is not already enough moisture coming from the food scraps.
  • When the top bin has been fully productive for a while, the worms will multiply and compost will be start accumulating from the worm castings. When the quantity of compost is meaningful, stop putting feed into this bin and swap over the upper two bins by putting bin No 2 to the top of the stack, with bin No 1 now in the middle. Set up this new top bin with clean bedding, a small amount of the old castings and immediately start feeding your kitchen scraps into it. The worms will naturally migrate upwards towards the new food source, leaving the lower bin with only a few stragglers and ready for the harvesting of your compost within about three weeks after the swap.
  • All you need to do is to keep repeating the process of alternating the top two bins on a regular basis, taking out the compost, whenever it accumulates, and tapping off the worm tea from time to time. Use both products in your garden and grow delicious fully organic vegetables and stunning roses. Sit back and enjoy the fruit of your labors – your worms are doing most of the work anyway!

To see a detailed diagram of this simple worm farm, as described, and some illustrative photos, you can visit our web site at http://www.working-worms.com/

Happy worming!